Utah Dog Bites and Premises Liability Laws

Owning dogs brings joy and companionship to countless people across the state of Utah. However, it also carries a significant responsibility to ensure that our furry friends behave well and do not pose a threat to others. In the state of Utah, as in many other states, there are laws regarding dog bites that protect both dog owners and potential victims.

In this detailed legal guide, we will explore Utah’s dog bite laws, outline the rights and responsibilities of dog owners, and provide valuable legal advice for those who have suffered from dog bites.

Understanding Utah’s Dog Bite Statute

Utah’s dog bite law primarily governs the liability of dog owners in the event of a dog bite or attack on a person:

  • The law, found in Section 18-1-1 of the Utah Code, establishes a standard of “strict liability.”;
  • This means that a dog owner is responsible for their dog’s actions regardless of whether they were aware of their dog’s aggressive tendencies;
  • Under this law, a dog owner can be held responsible for injuries caused by their dog, even if it was the dog’s first bite, and the owner had no reason to believe the dog was dangerous.

Liability for Dog Owners

Dog owners in the state of Utah must understand their legal obligations and responsibilities. Here are some key points to keep in mind:

  • Strict Liability: As mentioned earlier, Utah operates under a standard of strict liability in cases of dog bites. This means that as a dog owner, you are automatically liable if your dog bites someone, even if you were unaware of your dog’s aggressive behavior;
  • Exception for Trespassers: Utah’s dog bite law does not apply if the bitten person was trespassing on your property at the time of the incident. In such cases, you may not be held liable unless your dog has a history of aggressive behavior;
  • Compensating for Damages: If your dog bites someone, you may be responsible for covering their medical expenses and other losses resulting from the bite. To protect yourself financially in these situations, it’s advisable to have homeowner’s insurance or a separate dog bite liability insurance policy.

You are obligated to keep your dog on a leash and control its behavior in public places. Failure to do so may result in liability if your dog injures someone.

What Happens if My Dog Bites Someone in Utah?

If your dog bites someone in the state of Utah, several possible consequences and legal actions may follow, depending on the circumstances of the incident. Here’s an overview of what typically happens:

Immediate Concerns: Ensure the Victim’s Safety and Seek Medical Help

First and foremost, you must attend to the well-being of the person who was bitten. You should:

  • Immediately separate your dog from the victim and secure your dog to prevent further harm;
  • Offer assistance to the victim, including calling 911 or seeking medical help if the injuries are severe;
  • Exchange contact information with the victim and gather information from witnesses.

Reporting an Incident: Notification of Authorities

In the state of Utah, you are obligated to report a dog bite incident to the appropriate authorities. You should contact your local animal control agency and provide them with details of the incident. They may conduct an investigation and collect information for their records.

angry dogs

Quarantine or Observation

Depending on the circumstances and the severity of the dog bite, the dog may be placed under quarantine or observation. This is done to monitor the dog’s behavior and health for a specified period, typically to ensure that it is not rabid. The duration of the quarantine may vary depending on local rules and the specifics of the bite.

Potential Legal Consequences for Dog Owners

As a dog owner, you may face legal consequences, including:

  • Civil Liability: You may be financially liable for medical expenses and other losses incurred by the victim as a result of the dog bite. Utah operates under a standard of strict liability, meaning you can be held responsible even if your dog has never bitten anyone before, and you had no knowledge of its aggressive behavior;
  • Criminal Prosecution: In severe cases of dog attacks, especially if negligence or recklessness is involved, you may face criminal charges. This can result in fines, probation, or even imprisonment;
  • Euthanasia: In extreme cases where a dog poses a serious threat to public safety, a decision may be made to euthanize the dog.

It’s crucial to be aware of Utah’s dog bite laws and take steps to prevent dog bites. Responsible dog ownership and adherence to these laws can help protect both you and the community.

Protecting Dog Owners

Dog owners can utilize certain potential defenses, such as provocation by the victim, trespassing on your property, or assumption of risk by the victim. However, these defenses may not apply in all situations and depend on the specific circumstances of the case.

Judicial Action on the Part of the Victim

An individual bitten by your dog can take legal action against you to seek compensation for their injuries and damages. To file a lawsuit, they may consult with a personal injury attorney.

Homeowner’s Insurance or Liability Insurance for Dog Bites

If you have homeowner’s insurance, it may cover liability for dog bites. You should promptly notify your insurance company of the incident. Additionally, some insurance companies offer special dog bite liability insurance policies that protect dog owners from potential legal and financial consequences.

Statute of Limitations

If the victim decides to sue you, there is a limited timeframe, known as the statute of limitations, within which they must do so. In the state of Utah, this timeframe typically ranges from one to four years, depending on the specific circumstances of the case. To meet these deadlines, it is advisable to consult with an attorney.

Therefore, if your dog bites someone in Utah, your top priorities should be ensuring the victim’s safety and well-being, reporting the incident to authorities, and being prepared for potential legal and financial consequences. Consulting with an attorney experienced in handling dog bite cases can help you navigate the situation and protect your interests.

Defenses for Dog Owners

While Utah’s dog bite laws place significant responsibility on dog owners, there are several potential defenses you can use in your favor if faced with a dog bite lawsuit:

  • Provocation: If the bitten person somehow provoked or agitated your dog, this may serve as a valid defense. However, this defense may not apply if your dog has a history of aggressive behavior;
  • Illegal trespassing: If the person bitten was trespassing on your property at the time of the incident, you may not be held liable under Utah’s laws;
  • Assumption of risk: If the bitten person was aware of the risks associated with interacting with your dog and voluntarily assumed those risks, it can be a defense against liability.

Legal Advice for Dog Owners

To minimize the risk of liability under Utah’s dog bite laws, consider the following legal recommendations:

  • Socialize and train your dog: Proper socialization and training of your dog from an early age can reduce the risk of aggressive behavior;
  • Secure your property: Ensure that your property is securely fenced to prevent your dog from escaping and causing harm to others;
  • Use a leash: Always use a leash when walking your dog in public places to maintain control and prevent unforeseen incidents;
  • Monitor your dog’s behavior: Pay attention to your dog’s behavior around unfamiliar people and other animals. If your dog exhibits signs of aggression, seek professional assistance from a trainer or behaviorist;
  • Obtain liability insurance: Consider purchasing liability insurance to protect yourself financially in case your dog bites someone.

Legal Recourse for Dog Bite Victims

If you or a loved one becomes a victim of a dog bite in Utah, it’s essential to understand your rights and legal options. Here are some legal tips for dog bite victims:

  • Seek medical attention: Your health should be your top priority. Seek immediate medical care, even if the injuries appear minor. Some dog bites can lead to serious infections or complications;
  • Document the incident: Whenever possible, gather evidence from the scene, such as photographs, witness statements, and contact information. This documentation can be crucial when filing a lawsuit;
  • Report the incident: Contact your local animal control or law enforcement authorities to report the dog bite. They may conduct an investigation and gather evidence for their records;
  • Consult with an attorney: Consult with a personal injury attorney experienced in handling dog bite cases. An attorney can help you understand your rights, assess the situation, and pursue compensation for your injuries and related expenses.

Remember that there is a limited timeframe known as the statute of limitations within which you can file a lawsuit in connection with a dog bite in the state of Utah. Consult with an attorney promptly to meet all deadlines.

What Happens if a Dog Bites You?

If you are bitten by a dog, the actions and consequences will depend on the severity of the bite, the circumstances of the incident, and the laws applicable in your specific region. Here is a general overview of what may happen if you are bitten by a dog:

Immediate Response:

  • Seek medical attention: Your top priority should be your health and safety. If the dog bite breaks the skin, even if it appears minor, seek immediate medical attention. Dog bites can lead to infections, and some can be quite serious;
  • Identify the dog and owner: If possible, determine the identity of the dog and its owner or the person responsible for it. Obtain their contact information, including names and addresses;
  • Witness Information: If there were witnesses to the incident, also collect their contact information. Witness testimonies can be valuable in legal proceedings.

Report the Incident

Depending on the location of the animal, you may need to report the dog bite to local authorities, such as animal control or law enforcement agencies. Reporting the incident helps document the dog’s behavior and the circumstances of the bite.

Medical Treatment and Documentation

Follow the recommendations of medical professionals for wound care, vaccinations (especially tetanus and rabies), and any necessary follow-up visits. Document all medical procedures and expenses related to the dog bite.

Legal Action

You can file a lawsuit against the dog owner or the person responsible for the dog’s care if you believe they were negligent or if the dog has a history of aggressive behavior.

Consult with a personal injury attorney experienced in handling dog bite cases. They can help you assess the strength of your case and guide you through the legal process.

Depending on the circumstances and applicable laws, you may have the right to seek compensation for medical expenses, pain and suffering, lost wages, and other damages resulting from the dog bite.

Communication with the Dog Owner

You or your attorney can communicate with the dog owner or their insurance company to discuss the incident and potential compensation. In some cases, a settlement may be reached out of court.

Potential Consequences for the Dog Owner

The dog owner may face legal consequences, including financial responsibility for your medical expenses and damages.

In some jurisdictions, if the dog has a history of aggressive behavior or if the owner negligently controlled the dog, additional penalties such as fines or orders for the dog’s euthanasia may apply.

Statute of Limitations

Keep in mind that there is a limited timeframe, known as the statute of limitations, within which you can file a lawsuit related to a dog bite. The specific statute of limitations varies by jurisdiction, so consult with an attorney to ensure compliance with these deadlines.

If you are bitten by a dog, your immediate priority should be seeking medical attention and following your doctor’s advice. Reporting the incident and gathering evidence can be crucial if you decide to file a lawsuit against the dog owner. Consultation with a qualified personal injury attorney will help you understand your rights, assess the situation, and take the necessary steps to seek compensation for your injuries and damages.


Utah’s dog bite laws are designed to protect both dog owners and victims of dog attacks. Dog owners should be aware of their legal responsibilities, and victims should understand their rights when seeking compensation for injuries.

If you are a dog owner, take preventive measures to ensure that your dog does not bite others and consider liability insurance. If you become a victim of a dog bite, seek medical attention, document the incident, and consult with a qualified attorney to explore your legal options.

By understanding and complying with Utah’s dog bite laws, we can ensure the safety and well-being of both people and our canine companions.